1 ) What is Technology ??

  • It’s a process to accomplish objectives by using scientific process, method and knowledge
  • Anything created by human to make life easier and to solve problem
  • Example : Smartphone, Train

2 ) Elements of Information Technology :

  • Hardware (Physical devices outside & inside computer)
  • Software (Program install in the computer)
  • Data
  • People
  • Procedure

3 ) Categories of computer :

  • Personal computer
  • Mobile computer
  • Games consoles
  • Server
  • Mainframe
  • Supercomputer
  • Embedded computer


1 ) Processing Unit


2 ) Main component in system unit :

  • Processor
  1.    Brain of computer
  2.    Process instructions that come from memory or input
  3.    Contain Central Unit & ALU
  4.    Machine Cycle
  5.    Clock Speed
  • Memory
  1.  Use to keep records of information
  2. Types of Memory



-Flash Memory

-Cache Memory

  • Storage
  1. Storage is frequently used to mean the devices and data connected to the computer through input/output operations – that is, hard disk and tape systems and other forms of storage that don’t include computer memory and other in-computer storage.For the enterprise, the options for this kind of storage are of much greater variety and expense than that related to memory
  • Expansion Slots & Adapter Cards
  1. Expansion slot is a socket that hold adapter cards
  2. Adapter Cards is used to enhance the functions of a component / provide connections to peripheral
  3. Peripheral devices
  • Ports & Connectors
  1. Example of ports:USB, FireWire, MIDI, HDMI,
  2. Port Is a point at which peripheral attaches to or communicate with system unit. So that the peripheral can send and receives information from computer
  3. Connector
  • Buses
  1. A computer processes and stores data as a series of electronic bits. These bits transfer internally within the circuitry of the computer along the electrical channels. Each channel, called a bus, allows the both inside and attached system unit to communicate with each other.
  2. Buses are used to transfer bits of input devices to memory, from memory to processor, from processor to memory and from memory to output.
  3. The size of the bus, known as bus width determines the number of width the computer can transmit at one time. The larger the number of bits handled by the bus, the faster the computers transfers data. The wider the bus, the fewer the number of transfer steps required and the faster the transfer of data


1 ) Input ( instructions give to the computer to process)

2 ) Input device ( hardware that allow users to enter data and instructions )

3 ) Example Devices :

  • Keyboard
  • Pointing Devices
  • Video Input
  • Audio Input
  • Scanner
  • Bio-metric


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1 ) Output

  • Output is processed data from computer.
  • Output device is a hardware that enable user to send out the processed data out of computer.
  • It can take a form of Image, Text, Sound, Graphics and Video
  • Example of Output Device : Monitor, printer, projector and speaker.

2 ) Factor of Quality

  • Resolution

              – Is controlled by the number of pixels displayed on the screen

              – The higher resolution, the sharper and the clearer of the image

  • Dot pitch

              – Is the diagonal distance between pixels of the same colour on the screen

              – The smaller dot pitch (less blank space) the clearer of image

3 ) Choosing a printer

  • Speed (Determine by Pages Per Minute (ppm) )
  • Resolution ( measured in Dots Per Inch (Dpi) )
  • Use and Cost

4 ) Type of printer

  1. Ink-jet printer (cheaper compared to laser printer)
  2. Laser printer (can print faster compared to ink-jet)
  3. Thermal printer (to print receipt)


Image result for printer           Image result for thermal printer



1 ) Working With Application

  • A computer without software is just like sandwich without filling.
  • SOFTWARE: is a set of instructions that tells computer what to do.
  • These instructions is called PROGRAM.
  • TWO basics software:
  1. System software
  2. Application software

2 ) Application Software

  • Productivity

Is a program that enable you to perform various tasks generally in home, school and business.

Example: Word Processing, Excel, Presentation

  • Financial and business related

 Used to perform businesslike tasks. Different industry use different specialized programs

Example: Microsoft Money and Microsoft Project

  • Graphics and multimedia

 Graphics: Use to design and create attractive documents, images, illustrations and web pages.

Multimedia: include Video editing, animation and audio

Example: Photoshop, 360 and Movie Maker

  • Educational and references

Used in the form of training and learning

Example: Dictionaries and FullAmark

  • Entertainment

Provide users with entertainment and can download or play online

Example : Candy Crush and BookWorm

  • Communication

Used to connect people from different location to communicate and work together

Example: Email, Skype and WhatsApp

Image result for whatsapp          Image result for skype       Image result for email




  1. System software
  • Software can be divided into TWO types:

-Application Software

-System Software

  • System Software is used to control and maintain the operations of computer and its devices
  • SS provide User Interface between Application and Computer’s hardware

2. Operating system

  • Is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources.

3.Functions of Operating Systems:

  • Start and shut-down computer
  • Providing user interface
  • Managing program
  • Managing memory
  • Coordinate tasks
  • Configuring devices
  • Monitor performances
  • Establish an Internet connection


Categories of Operating Systems.

  • Stand-alone

-It is used mostly in Personal Computer

-Example: Windows 7, Linux, Ubuntu

  • Server

-Is specifically designed to support network

-Example: Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Solaris

  • Embedded

-Operating system on mobile devices

-Example: Ios, Blackberry,  Android

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Utilities :

  • Is a type of system software
  • Its allow user to perform maintenance-type tasks
  • Usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its program
  • Utility provides functions:

1)Managing files

2)Install / uninstall programs

3)Defragmenting disks / cleaning up disk

4)Setting up screen savers

5)Burning CD

6)Protecting against viruses



Storage is a place for computer and user use to hold or store data and information.

There are two types of storage:
1. Primary (RAM) : volatile / not permanent
2. Secondary : Permanent / not lost even the computer turn off

Example of Secondary Storage:
1. Hard Disk
2. Memory Cards
3. Cloud Storage
4. Optical Disks
5. Magnetic Stripe Card and Smart Cards

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Additional Info:
There are THREE types of OPTICAL DISKS

1. CD-ROM (read only. meaning you can only play the song or video given)

2. CD-R (can be write but ONCE only. after burn (copy file to CD) you CANNOT add other file to it

3. CD-RW (can write and read for many times. the function is just like USB. you can delete, alter file, copy etc many times you want)


Image result for computer disk